1991年12月25日,世界发生了一场巨大的地缘政治灾难:苏联解体。

关于苏联解体的原因非常的多,包括政治、经济、军事、外交和民族矛盾等方方面面的原因,各种研究书籍汗牛充栋。但是,根本原因只有两点:

第一,经济困难。

第二,失去民心。

苏联解体以“戈尔巴乔夫宣布辞职”为标志,随后叶利钦被选为独立的俄罗斯联邦的首任总统,开始推动资本主义的市场经济和民主制。


169. Don't let yesterday use up too much of today. 别留念昨天了,把握好今天吧。(Will Rogers)170. If you are not brave enough, no one will back you up. 你不勇敢,没人替你坚强。171. If you don't build your dream, someone will hire you to build theirs. 如果你没有梦想,那么你只能为别人的梦想打工。172. Beauty is all around, if you just open your heart to see. 只要你给自己机会,你会发现你的世界可以很美丽。173. The difference in winning and losing is most often...not quitting. 赢与输的差别通常是--不放弃。(华特·迪士尼)174. I am ordinary yet unique. 我很平凡,但我独一无二。175. I like people who make me laugh in spite of myself. 我喜欢那些让我笑起来的人,就算是我不想笑的时候。176. Image a new story for your life and start living it.为你的生命想一个全新剧本,并去倾情出演吧!177. I'd rather be a happy fool than a sad sage. 做个悲伤的智者,不如做个开心的傻子。178. The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. 未来属于那些相信梦想之美的人。(埃莉诺·罗斯福)179. Even if you get no applause, you should accept a curtain call gracefully and appreciate your own efforts. 即使没有人为你鼓掌,也要优雅的谢幕,感谢自己的认真付出。180. Don't let dream just be your dream. 别让梦想只停留在梦里。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林)182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》184. You can be happy no matter what. 开心一点吧,管它会怎样。185. A good plan today is better than a perfect plan tomorrow. 今天的好计划胜过明天的完美计划。186. Nothing is impossible, the word itself says 'I'm possible'! 一切皆有可能!“不可能”的意思是:“不,可能。”(奥黛丽·赫本)187. Life isn't fair, but no matter your circumstances, you have to give it your all. 生活是不公平的,不管你的境遇如何,你只能全力以赴。188. No matter how hard it is, just keep going because you only fail when you give up. 无论多么艰难,都要继续前进,因为只有你放弃的那一刻,你才输了。     When Paul Jobs was mustered out of the Coast Guard after World War II, he made a wager with his crewmates. They had arrived in San Francisco, where their ship was decommissioned, and Paul bet that he would find himself a wife within two weeks. He was a taut, tattooed engine mechanic, six feet tall, with a passing resemblance to James Dean. But it wasn’t his looks that got him a date with Clara Hagopian, a sweet-humored daughter of Armenian immigrants. It was the fact that he and his friends had a car, unlike the group she had originally planned to go out with that evening. Ten days later, in March 1946, Paul got engaged to Clara and won his wager. It would turn out to be a happy marriage, one that lasted until death parted them more than forty years later.Paul Reinhold Jobs had been raised on a dairy farm in Germantown, Wisconsin. Even though his father was an alcoholic and sometimes abusive, Paul ended up with a gentle and calm disposition under his leathery exterior. After dropping out of high school, he wandered through the Midwest picking up work as a mechanic until, at age nineteen, he joined the Coast Guard, even though he didn’t know how to swim. He was deployed on the USS General M. C. Meigs and spent much of the war ferrying troops to Italy for General Patton. His talent as a machinist and fireman earned him commendations, but he occasionally found himself in minor trouble and never rose above the rank of seaman.Clara was born in New Jersey, where her parents had landed after fleeing the Turks in Armenia, and they moved to the Mission District of San Francisco when she was a child. She had a secret that she rarely mentioned to anyone: She had been married before, but her husband had been killed in the war. So when she met Paul Jobs on that first date, she was primed to start a new life.Clara, however, loved San Francisco, and in 1952 she convinced her husband to move back there. They got an apartment in the Sunset District facing the Pacific, just south of Golden Gate Park, and he took a job working for a finance company as a “repo man,” picking the locks of cars whose owners hadn’t paid their loans and repossessing them. He also bought, repaired, and sold some of the cars, making a decent enough living in the process.There was, however, something missing in their lives. They wanted children, but Clara had suffered an ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg was implanted in a fallopian tube rather than the uterus, and she had been unable to have any. So by 1955, after nine years of marriage, they were looking to adopt a child.Like Paul Jobs, Joanne Schieble was from a rural Wisconsin family of German heritage. Her father, Arthur Schieble, had immigrated to the outskirts of Green Bay, where he and his wife owned a mink farm and dabbled successfully in various other businesses, including real estate and photoengraving. He was very strict, especially regarding his daughter’s relationships, and he had strongly disapproved of her first love, an artist who was not a Catholic. Thus it was no surprise that he threatened to cut Joanne off completely when, as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, she fell in love with Abdulfattah “John” Jandali, a Muslim teaching assistant from Syria.Jandali was the youngest of nine children in a prominent Syrian family. His father owned oil refineries and multiple other businesses, with large holdings in Damascus and Homs, and at one point pretty much controlled the price of wheat in the region. His mother, he later said, was a “traditional Muslim woman” who was a “conservative, obedient housewife.” Like the Schieble family, the Jandalis put a premium on education. Abdulfattah was sent to a Jesuit boarding school, even though he was Muslim, and he got an undergraduate degree at the American University in Beirut before entering the University of Wisconsin to pursue a doctoral degree in political science.In the summer of 1954, Joanne went with Abdulfattah to Syria. They spent two months in Homs, where she learned from his family to cook Syrian dishes. When they returned to Wisconsin she discovered that she was pregnant. They were both twenty-three, but they decided not to get married. Her father was dying at the time, and he had threatened to disown her if she wed Abdulfattah. Nor was abortion an easy option in a small Catholic community. So in early 1955, Joanne traveled to San Francisco, where she was taken into the care of a kindly doctor who sheltered unwed mothers, delivered their babies, and quietly arranged closed adoptions.Joanne had one requirement: Her child must be adopted by college graduates. So the doctor arranged for the baby to be placed with a lawyer and his wife. But when a boy was born—on February 24, 1955—the designated couple decided that they wanted a girl and backed out. Thus it was that the boy became the son not of a lawyer but of a high school dropout with a passion for mechanics and his salt-of-the-earth wife who was working as a bookkeeper. Paul and Clara named their new baby Steven Paul Jobs.When Joanne found out that her baby had been placed with a couple who had not even graduated from high school, she refused to sign the adoption papers. The standoff lasted weeks, even after the baby had settled into the Jobs household. Eventually Joanne relented, with the stipulation that the couple promise—indeed sign a pledge—to fund a savings account to pay for the boy’s college education.There was another reason that Joanne was balky about signing the adoption papers. Her father was about to die, and she planned to marry Jandali soon after. She held out hope, she would later tell family members, sometimes tearing up at the memory, that once they were married, she could get their 别让梦想只停留在梦里。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林)182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》184. You can be happy no matter what. 开心一点吧,管它会怎样。baby boy back.Arthur Schieble died in August 1955, after the adoption was finalized. Just after Christmas that year, Joanne and Abdulfattah were married in St. Philip the Apostle Catholic Church in Green Bay. He got his PhD in international politics the next year, and then they had another child, a girl named Mona. After she and Jandali divorced in 1962, Joanne embarked on a dreamy and peripatetic life that her daughter, who grew up to become the acclaimed novelist Mona Simpson, would capture in her book Anywhere but Here. Because Steve’s adoption had been closed, it would be twenty years before they would all find each other.Steve Jobs knew from an early age that he was adopted. “My parents were very open with me about that,” he recalled. He had a vivid memory of sitting on the lawn of his house, when he was six or seven years old, telling the girl who lived across the street. “So does that mean your real parents didn’t want you?” the girl asked. “Lightning bolts went off in my head,” according to Jobs. “I remember running into the house, crying. And my parents said, ‘No, you have to understand.’ They were very serious and looked me straight in the eye. They said, ‘We specifically picked you out.’ Both of my parents said that and repeated it slowly for me. And they put an emphasis on every word in that sentence.”Abandoned. Chosen. Special. Those concepts became part of who Jobs was and how he regarded himself. His closest friends think that the knowledge that he was given up at birth left some scars. “I think his desire for complete control of whatever he makes derives directly from his personality and the fact that he was abandoned at birth,” said one longtime colleague, Del Yocam. “He wants to control his environment, and he sees the product as an extension of himself.” Greg Calhoun, who became close to Jobs right after college, saw another effect. “Steve talked to me a lot about being abandoned and the pain that caused,” he said. “It made him independent. He followed the beat of a different drummer, and that came from being in a different world than he was born into.”Later in life, when he was the same age his biological father had been when he abandoned him, Jobs would father and abandon a child of his own. (He eventually took responsibility for her.) Chrisann Brennan, the mother of that child, said that being put up for adoption left Jobs “full of broken glass,” and it helps to explain some of his behavior. “He who is abandoned is an abandoner,” she said. Andy Hertzfeld, who worked with Jobs at Apple in the early 1980s, is among the few who remained close to both Brennan and Jobs. “The key question about Steve is why he can’t control himself at times from being so reflexively cruel and harmful to some people,” he said. “That goes back to being abandoned at birth. The real underlying problem was the theme of abandonment in Steve’s life.”Jobs dismissed this. “There’s some notion that because I was abandoned, I worked very hard so I could do well and make my parents wish they had me back, or some such nonsense, but that’s ridiculous,” he insisted. “Knowing I was adopted may have made me feel more independent, but I have never felt abandoned. I’ve always felt special. My parents made me feel special.” He would later bristle whenever anyone referred to Paul and Clara Jobs as his “adoptive” parents or implied that they were not his “real” parents. “They were my parents 1,000%,” he said. When speaking about his biological parents, on the other hand, he was curt: “They were my sperm and egg bank. That’s not harsh, it’s just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing more.”Silicon ValleyThe childhood that Paul and Clara Jobs created for their new son was, in many ways, a stereotype of the late 1950s. When Steve was two they adopted a girl they named Patty, and three years later they moved to a tract house in the suburbs. The finance company where Paul worked as a repo man, CIT, had transferred him down to its Palo Alto office, but he could not afford to live there, so they landed in a subdivision in Mountain View, a less expensive town just to the south.There Paul tried to pass along his love of mechanics and cars. “Steve, this is your workbench now,” he said as he marked off a section of the table in their garage. Jobs remembered being impressed by his father’s focus on craftsmanship. “I thought my dad’s sense of design was pretty good,” he said, “because he knew how to build anything. If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him.”Fifty years later the fence still surrounds the back and side yards of the house in Mountain View. As Jobs showed it off to me, he caressed the stockade panels and recalled a lesson that his father implanted deeply in him. It was important, his father said, to craft the backs of cabinets and fences properly, even though they were hidden. “He loved doing things right. He even cared about the look of the parts you couldn’t see.”His father continued to refurbish and resell used cars, and he festooned the garage with pictures of his favorites. He would point out the detailing of the design to his son: the lines, the vents, the chrome, the trim of the seats. After work each day, he would change into his dungarees and retreat to the garage, often with Steve tagging along. “I figured I could get him nailed down with a little mechanical ability, but he really wasn’t interested in getting his hands dirty,” Paul later recalled. “He never really cared too much about m189. It requires hard work to give off an appearance of effortlessness. 你必须十分努力,才能看起来毫不费力。190. Life is like riding a bicycle.To keep your balance,you must keep moving. 人生就像骑单车,只有不断前进,才能保持平衡。(爱因斯坦)191. Be thankful for what you have.You'll end up having more. 拥有一颗感恩的心,最终你会得到更多。192. Beauty is how you feel inside, and it reflects in your eyes. 美是一种内心的感觉,并反映在你的眼睛里。(索菲亚·罗兰)193. Friendship doubles your joys, and divides your sorrows. 朋友的作用,就是让你快乐加倍,痛苦减半。194. When you long for something sincerely, the whole world will help you. 当你真心渴望某样东西时,整个宇宙都会来帮忙。echanical things.”“I wasn’t that into fixing cars,” Jobs admitted. “But I was eager to hang out with my dad.” Even as he was growing more aware that he had been adopted, he was becoming more attached to his father. One day when he was about eight, he discovered a photograph of his father from his time in the Coast Guard. “He’s in the engine room, and he’s got his shirt off and looks like James Dean. It was one of those Oh wow moments for a kid. Wow, oooh, my parents were actually once very young and really good-looking.”Through cars, his father gave Steve his first exposure to electronics. “My dad did not have a deep understanding of electronics, but he’d encountered it a lot in automobiles and other things he would fix. He showed me the rudiments of electronics, and I got very interested in that.” Even more interesting were the trips to scavenge for parts. “Every weekend, there’d be a junkyard trip. We’d be looking for a generator, a carburetor, all sorts of components.” He remembered watching his father negotiate at the counter. “He was a good bargainer, because he knew better than the guys at the counter what the parts should cost.” This helped fulfill the pledge his parents made when he was adopted. “My college fund came from my dad paying $50 for a Ford Falcon or some other beat-up car that didn’t run, working on it for a few weeks, and selling it for $250—and not telling the IRS.”The Jobses’ house and the others in their neighborhood were built by the real estate developer Joseph Eichler, whose company spawned more than eleven thousand homes in various California subdivisions between 1950 and 1974. Inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright’s vision of simple modern homes for the American “everyman,” Eichler built inexpensive houses that featured floor-to-ceiling glass walls, open floor plans, exposed post-and-beam construction, concrete slab floors, and lots of sliding glass doors. “Eichler did a great thing,” Jobs said on one of our walks around the neighborhood. “His houses were smart and cheap and good. They brought clean design and simple taste to lower-income people. They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors. You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids.”Jobs said that his appreciation for Eichler homes instilled in him a passion for making nicely designed products for the mass market. “I love it when you can bring really great design and simple capability to something that doesn’t cost much,” he said as he pointed out the clean elegance of the houses. “It was the original vision for Apple. That’s what we tried to do with the first Mac. That’s what we did with the iPod.”Across the street from the Jobs family lived a man who had become successful as a real estate agent. “He wasn’t that bright,” Jobs recalled, “but he seemed to be making a fortune. So my dad thought, ‘I can do that.’ He worked so hard, I remember. He took these night classes, passed the license test, and got into real estate. Then the bottom fell out of the market.” As a result, the family found itself financially strapped for a year or so while Steve was in elementary school. His mother took a job as a bookkeeper for Varian Associates, a company that made scientific instruments, and they took out a second mortgage. One day his fourth-grade teacher asked him, “What is it you don’t understand about the universe?” Jobs replied, “I don’t understand why all of a sudden my dad is so broke.” He was proud that his father never adopted a servile attitude or slick style that may have made him a better salesman. “You had to suck up to people to sell real estate, and he wasn’t good at that and it wasn’t in his nature. I admired him for that.” Paul Jobs went back to being a mechanic.His father was calm and gentle, traits that his son later praised more than emulated. He was also resolute. Jobs described one examplWhat made the neighborhood different from the thousands of other spindly-tree subdivisions across America was that even the ne’er-do-wells tended to be engineers. “When we moved here, there were apricot and plum orchards on all of these corners,” Jobs recalled. “But it was beginning to boom because of military investment.” He soaked up the history of the valley and developed a yearning to play his own role. Edwin Land of Polaroid later told him about being asked by Eisenhower to help build the U-2 spy plane cameras to see how real the Soviet threat was. The film was dropped in canisters and returned to the NASA Ames Research Center in Sunnyvale, not far from where Jobs lived. “The first computer terminal I ever saw was when my dad brought me to the Ames Center,” he said. “I fell totally in love with it.”Other defense contractors sprouted nearby during the 1950s. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Division, which built submarine-launched ballistic missiles, was founded in 1956 next to the NASA Center; by the time Jobs moved to the area four years later, it employed twenty thousand people. A few hundred yards away, Westinghouse built facilities that produced tubes and electrical transformers for the missile systems. “You had all these military companies on the cutting edge,” he recalled. “It was mysterious and high-tech and made living here very exciting.”In the wake of the defense industries there arose a booming economy based on technology. Its roots stretched back to 1938, when David Packard and his new wife moved into a house in Palo Alto that had a shed where his friend Bill Hewlett was soon ensconced. The house had a garage—an appendage that would prove both useful and iconic in the valley—in which they tinkered around until they had their first product, an audio oscillator. By the 1950s, Hewlett-Packard was a fast-growing company making technical instruments.Fortunately there was a place nearby for entrepreneurs who had outgrown their garages. In a move that would help transform the area into the cradle of the tech revolution, Stanford University’s dean of engineering, Frederick Terman, created a seven-hundred-acre industrial park on university land for private companies that could commercialize the ideas of his students. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, where Clara Jobs worked. “Terman came up with this great idea that did more than anything to cause the tech industry to grow up here,” Jobs said. By the time Jobs was ten, HP had nine thousand employees and was the blue-chip company where every engineer seeking financial stability wanted to work.The most important technology for the region’s growth was, of course, the semiconductor. William Shockley, who had been one of the inventors of the transistor at Bell Labs in New Jersey, moved out to Mountain View and, in 1956, started a company to build transistors using silicon rather than the more expensive germanium that was then commonly used. But Shockley became increasingly erratic and abandoned his silicon transistor project, which led eight of his engineers—most notably Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore—to break away to form Fairchild Semiconductor. That company grew to twelve thousand employees, but it fragmented in 1968, when Noyce lost a power struggle to become CEO. He took Gordon Moore and founded a company that they called Integrated Electronics Corporation, which they soon smartly abbreviated to Intel. Their third employee was Andrew Grove, who later would grow the company by shifting its focus from memory chips to microprocessors. Within a few years there would be more than fifty companies in the area making semiconductors.The exponential growth of this industry was correlated with the phenomenon famously discovered by Moore, who in 1965 drew a graph of the speed of integrated circuits, based on the number of transistors that could be placed on a chip, and showed that it doubled about every two years, a trajectory that could be expected to continue. This was reaffirmed in 1971, when Intel was able to etch a complete central processing unit onto one chip, the Intel 4004, tronic amplifier. “So I raced home, and I told my dad that he was wrong.”“No, it needs an amplifier,” his father assured him. When Steve protested otherwise, his father said he was crazy. “It can’t work without an amplifier. There’s some trick.”“I kept saying no to my dad, telling him he had to see it, and finally he actually walked down with me and saw it. And he said, ‘Well I’ll be a bat out of hell.’”Jobs recalled the incident vividly because it was his first realization that his father did not know everything. Then a more disconcerting discovery began to dawn on him: He was smarter than his parents. He had always admired his father’s competence and savvy. “He was not an educated man, but I had always thought he was pretty damn smart. He didn’t read much, but he could do a lot. Almost everything mechanical, he could figure it out.” Yet the carbon microphone incident, Jobs said, began a jarring process of realizing that he was in fact more clever and quick than his parents. “It was a very big moment that’s burned into my mind. When I realized that I was smarter than my parents, I felt tremendous shame for having thought that. I will never forget that moment.” This discovery, he later told friends, along with the fact that he was adopted, made him feel apart—detached and separate—from both his family and the world.Another layer of awareness occurred soon after. Not only did he discover that he was brighter than his parents, but he discovered that they knew this. Paul and Clara Jobs were loving parents, and they were willing to adapt their lives to suit a son who was very smart—and also willful. They would go to great lengths to accommodate him. And soon Steve discovered this fact as well. “Both my parents got me. They felt a lot of responsibility once they sensed that I was special. They found ways to keep feeding me stuff and putting me in better schools. They were willing to defer to my needs.”So he grew up not only with a sense of having once been abandoned, but also with a sense that he was special. In his own mind, that was more important in the formation of his personality.SchoolEven before Jobs started elementary school, his mother had taught him how to read. This, however, led to some problems once he got to school. “I was kind of bored for the first few years

苏联解体以后,叶利钦开始了经济改革,采取了资本主义的市场经济和民主制。

俄罗斯在资本主义化的过程中,首先要做的就是国企私有化(后来普京又变回了国有化)。

苏联解体之前,采取的是计划经济,几乎全部是国企。叶利钦推进市场经济,首先要做的就是将国企私有化,把国企的财富分给人民。

如何分?

大概是意思是这样的:假设一个公司有100人,这个公司值100万,那么就发行100张面额为1万的支票,每人发一张,这个支票你随时可以卖掉。

下面这张图就是在1992年的时候叶利钦的改革团队把全国的资产分为1.48亿份支票和凭单的“私有化支票”,每张面额为1万卢布。

叶利钦这么做大家很高兴。老百姓在国企上班,本来就受够了那种体制内的各种制约,现在国企被私有化了,大家都获得了一大笔钱,肯定会有很多人不想干了。

于是,很多人就把这个“支票”给卖出去了,一部分人拿着钱去搞市场经济了,还有一部分人拿着钱,继续在这个企业里工作。

这会出现什么后果?钱多货少,通货膨胀!卢布贬值,最终成了废纸。

而在这个过程中,一些聪明的商人看到了这其中的机会。

我们举例来说明:我分到1万卢布的私有化支票,我立刻换成卢布。假设这个时候卢布兑美元是1卢布=1美元,那么我立刻兑换成1万美元。由于兑换的人越来越多,等卢布大幅度贬值的时候,我再拿着美元兑换成巨额的卢布。假设这个时候,卢布几乎等于废纸了,1美元=1万卢布,那么我1万美元就能换1万万卢布,然后我再拿着这1万万卢布兑换成1万张私有化支票(每张面额为1万卢布),就能获得了企业的控制权。

就这样,俄罗斯的国企被极少的聪明的企业家获得了控制权,这些人就被称为“寡头”。(和中国过去2000年不断重复的土地向少数人集中是相同的),耕地、银行、石油等重要的国计民生的资源,不能被私人垄断。

1991年苏联解体,到了1996年左右的时候,俄罗斯的经济经济几乎全部被资本家所控制,老百姓分到的那1万卢布基本都贬值成了废纸。

于是,短视的老百姓都自己把自己搞亏了,变得恼怒了,又开始怀念社会主义。人性的本质,自己亏了钱,就恼怒。

1996年俄罗斯再次开始大选,以久加诺夫为首的俄罗斯共产党获得了极高的支持率,叶利钦的地位岌岌可危。

叶利钦为了获得政权,于是就和那些寡头勾结了起来。那时候,俄罗斯最有名的七巨头分别为:联合银行总裁别列佐夫斯基、大桥银行总裁古辛斯基、国际商业银行总裁维诺格拉多夫、首都银储蓄行总裁斯摩棱斯基、阿尔法银行总裁弗里德曼、梅纳杰普银行总裁霍多尔科夫斯基和俄罗斯信贷商业银行总裁马尔金。

叶利钦和这些寡头达成利益交换以后,这些寡头就利用自己控制的媒体铺天盖地的报道苏联时期的各种负面新闻,把社会主义的弊端无限的放大,甚至不断的妖魔化列宁、斯大林等俄罗斯的伟人……

最终,叶利钦成功连任,而俄罗斯的政治也被这些寡头所左右。“资本控制政治”。

政治是一件非常复杂的事情,资本家对于怎么捞钱可能非常擅长,但是治理国家完全是另外一回事,所以资本控制政治也是灾难!

现在的美国也基本是这样的,美国资本控制了美国的政治。

在2015年8月的电视辩论中,特朗普说道:“所有政客都是资本家的狗,希拉里收我的钱所以要给我干事,在场这些和我辩论的,几个没收过我的钱? ” 

特朗普还称作为一名商人,为了拉关系、套近乎,他曾向许多政治家捐款,不论其属于哪个政党。他说:“之前我给许多人捐过款。当他们给我打电话,我就会捐款。这样一来,两三年后当我有所求于他们时,他们也会答应我。”

他还说,他用钱收买政客,他想让这些政客干什么,他们就得干什么。比如,2005年他要求克林顿夫妇参加他的婚礼,他们就乖乖地前往。

叶利钦连任后,俄罗斯的经济更加的糟糕,而寡头则越来越富有,人民更加的民不聊生,他不明白,让穷人安稳,才是政治。

1991年苏联解体,叶利钦担任俄罗斯首任总统,开始走资本主义道路,经济持续下滑;1996年叶利钦在寡头的支持下,获得连任,经济持续下滑,民不聊生;1999年,叶利钦不得不宣布辞职,由副总理普京接任。

在普京接手俄罗斯的时候,整个俄罗斯经济几乎完全的崩溃:外债累累,国民保险、医疗、教育都破产,而盈利的石油、天然气、矿山全部都在俄国金融寡头和外国资本手里。

普京唯一的办法就是:再次“打土豪、分田地”! 

普京上台以后,首先要做的就是:拿回舆论的主导权!

于是,普京对俄罗斯的传媒大亨古辛斯基开刀:2000年俄罗斯检察院突然对其提出指控,罪名是诈骗和侵吞国家巨额财产——俄罗斯通过国际刑警组织对古辛斯基发出通缉令。

当然了,普京也不是完全没有给他活路。

普京给他留了一条活路:如果想要取消通缉,古辛斯基必须答应普京一个条件——必须将其控制的电视网络出售给国有公司,并永远的离开俄罗斯,老老实实的待在国外。

就这样,普京拿到了媒体的舆论权。

但是,这远远的不够。

普京拿到媒体的舆论权以后,逐步的通过宣传,逐渐的获得了除了寡头以外的所有阶层的支持:俄罗斯的老百姓和军队全部站在了普京一侧。

这时,对寡头动手的时机成熟了!

2003年2月,普京突然召开经济会议,将那些寡头,也就是控制国家经济命脉的大资本家全部召集到一起。

这次会议是电视直播,整个俄罗斯,甚至世界都可以看到。

普京没有废话,直接说:现在国家经济面临重大困难,需要各位的支持,我给你们两条路:第一,要么死;第二,要么滚。

不交出企业的控制权,就是死;交出企业的控制权,就滚到国外去,每年拿到一定的分红,让你们安享晚年。

俄罗斯的那些寡头自然不甘心,尤其是俄国最大的尤科斯石油公司、俄前首富米哈伊尔·霍多尔科夫斯基公开反对说:俄罗斯的经济发展差并不是他们垄断了俄罗斯的经济导致的,而是政府腐败导致的。

然后,他给了普京一个详细的资料。

然而,普京话锋一转:如果不是你们偷税漏税,不断的贿赂政府官员,他们会贪污腐败吗?

话,谈不下去了,于是普京说散会。

几天后,尤科斯石油尤科斯公司总裁、俄前首富米哈伊尔·霍多尔科夫斯基,被捕入狱,新成立的俄罗斯国家石油公司吞并了尤科斯的石油公司。

解决了尤科斯以后,普京再次召开会议,说道:现在国家经济困难,老百姓生活艰难,大家都是国家栋梁,应该帮助国家度过难关。你们把你们手中的油田、气田、矿山、金融的卖给国家,国家也不白拿,给你们一些钱,每年有分红,也不限制你们出国度假和旅游。搞企业多累啊,风险还大,你们交出股权后,以后就不用整天提心吊胆的,老百姓也不恨你们了,多好的事情啊。(俄罗斯版本的公私合营)

有些人,还是不乐意,说:你这不是民主,违背俄罗斯的宪法。

普京说,这样吧,这事也不是短期内能谈拢的,你们先回去思考几天,过几天我们再谈这个问题。

几天后,那些反对最厉害的寡头,有的莫名其妙的死了,有的被各种罪名给抓进了大牢,还有一些被流放到西伯利亚了。

然后,普京再次召开会议,再也没有敢反对的人了。

这段历史,大家可以公开的纪录片。


搞掂了这些寡头后,普京将目光对准那些外国公司。英国BP,日本财团,法国康菲等等,也都把持着不少俄国油气田。

对待外国公司,普京不能采取对待国内寡头那种方式,毕竟俄罗斯还得在国际上混。但是,普京也有手段。普京不断的派人对那些外国公司进行查账、查环保问题、查贿赂问题,搞的那些外国企业无法正常生产。那些外国公司不断的被骚扰,根本无法正常经营,于是他们找到普京,问道:您到底想要做什么,给个痛快的话吧。

普京也不藏着,说道:我们的国有企业想要收购大家的石油、矿产等,价格嘛,高高的,你们也可以入股,大家一起做生意发大财。那些国外企业一想:不答应,整天被普京搞的也无法生产,还不如答应算了,毕竟能拿到钱,而且还可以入股获得分红。

就这样,普京干掉了那些寡头,又收拾了那些国际资本,将关系到国计民生的行业全部收归国有。

在做完这些事情以后,恰逢世界经济也开始好转,对石油的需求量不断增加,油价不断上涨,俄罗斯的经济飞速发展,政府越来越有钱。有钱以后,普京就开始不断的搞民生,教育免费、医疗免费……

老百姓的日子不断的变好,普京的支持率不断的高涨。

俄罗斯石油彻底被国家控制以后,有钱了,再加上军事不弱,于是普京就开始在世界上“得瑟”了,不断的用低油价收买东欧国家(俄罗斯的石油和天然气卖给欧洲比国际价格低三分之一左右),甚至包括德国、意大利等西欧国家,俄罗斯在欧洲和世界上的影响力越来越大,甚至开始逐渐的动摇美国在欧洲的根基……

2008年美国操纵了沙特等国家,国际油价暴跌,俄罗斯经济承受重打击;美国不断推动北约东扩,围堵俄罗斯……

事实上,我们从上面的过程中就可以看出:现在的美国和普京上任前的俄罗斯几乎是一模一样的。

美国的媒体也被那些大资本家控制着,美国的经济命脉也被华尔街控制着,他们左右着美国的政坛——这就是特朗普所说的“美国所有政客都是资本家的狗”。

现在的美国,是这个世界上最奇怪的资本主义国家,美国的一切都被资本控制着。

我们说俄罗斯是资本主义,但是国家直接控制着关系到国计民生的企业;日本是资本主义国家,但是日本政府是日本40%上市企业的大股东;德国、法国等也是资本主义国家,但是他们的央行至少被政府控制着……2000年来的中国历代王朝都是盐铁专卖。

这些资本主义国家,政府都有一定的能力来制衡资本!

美国政府什么都控制不住,非但没有国企,也不持有那些垄断企业的股份,就连美联储都是独立的,不受政府控制!

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